and Mariner 7
1969 - Fly-by Missions
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Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 arrived at Mars four days apart in the middle of 1969. Like Mariner 4, these were flyby missions so time was limited but the pair of spacecraft approached within approximately 3,550 kilometers (2,200 miles) of the planet and together transmitted nearly 200 photographs to Earth. These pictures included both polar caps as well as Phobos - one of the planet's two moons. The ships also carried instruments that scientists used to study the chemical composition of the Martian atmosphere. Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 set the stage for the Mariner 9 mission.